Specials Special
Torpedoes and Mines of the Dutch Submarine Service
Jolly Roger

In the year 2005 the Dutch Torpedo Arm will celebrate is 130th birthday. Among other things a reunion will be organized.

For additional photos and information please check the 'related pages list' at the bottom of this page.

 

 

The Unknown mine
    
Type -----------------?
Diameter -----------------?
Warhead -----------------?
Exploder -----------------?
Notes Launched from vertical mine shafts and not from torpedo tube

This mine was used on board the O 19 class submarine mine layers. It is possibly a Vickers. of which there where 199 on stock in the N.E.I. in Feb. 1942). It is reported that on 13 Apr 1945 O 19 laid a line of Vickers T III T mines. Please contact us if you have any information on this type of mine.

Vickers T Mk III
Type Contact mine
Diameter 92 cm
Height 119 cm
Material Steel
Shape Two hemispheres connected in the middle with a 21 cm cylindrical socket.
Warhead 220Kg TNT or Amatol
Horns Six horns in total
Four, divide equally, at the top hemisphere
Two at the bottom hemisphere
Notes Launched from vertical mine shafts and not from torpedo tube.

Go to page Loading mines on board O 19 for detailed information on this type of mine.

 

A mine being transferred to the submarine O 19. The mines are just about to be lowered in their external shafts. Year, place and type of mine unknown (Photo: © Collection IMH / Siem Spruijt ).
Additional info and images at the Loading mines on board O 19 page.
A mystery mine being transferred to the submarine O 19. The mines are just about to be lowered in their external shafts. Year, place and type of mine unknown (Photo: © Collection IMH / Siem Spruijt ).

 

The M Mark IID mine
      
Description Submarine torpedo tube laid ground mine.
CR magnetic mine with steriliser but no acoustic firing gear.
  M Mark II M Mark IID
Diameter 21" ?
Length 91" ?
Weight 798 Kg ?
Warhead 454 Kg minol ?
Exploder Magnetic ?
Notes Originally type G
To be laid at 8 kts in 5-60 fathoms
Modified M Mark II for Dutch submarines
The D in IID stands for 'Dutch'

Two mines occupied the space of one torpedo. Although it seems a M Mark IID mine did exist we have no info at all on Dutch submarines using these mines. A contract (by the RN) for 2,000 Mark II mines was placed in 1940 but production was halted in November 1942.  In 1949, 1,310 were in RN storage.

 

 

The Visch Ar torpedo
  
Diameter 18"
Length 5.04 m
Warhead 60 Kg wet gun-cotton
Exploder Contact
Range/Speed 1000 m at 26 kts
1500 m at 22 kts
Power plant Radial piston engine,
compressed air.
Propulsion Two counter rotating propellers

First torpedo of the Dutch submarine service. Improved many times, air pressure increased from 150 to 200 atm, a combustion chamber and a sweet water injection system was installed. The torpedo was also improved by installing a faster gyro, air was used to keep the speed of the gyro constant.

 

The XA torpedo

  
Service 1896(MTB's)-
Diameter 18"
Warhead wet gun-cotton

Possibly the XA and the XIIA refer to the same torpedo. This torpedo was first used on torpedo boats (MTB).

 

The XIIA torpedo

 
Service 1903(MTB's)-
Diameter 18"
Warhead 60 Kg wet gun-cotton
Engine 3 cylinder,
compressed air

This torpedo was first used on torpedo boats (MTB). The O 1 was armed with 3 of these 18" torpedo's. Possibly the XA and the XIIA refer to the same torpedo. In the 1920's and maybe earlier/later the XII type a, b, and c was mainly used as exercise torpedo for surface vessels and as a spare wartime torpedo for submarines.

This torpedo was used on the O 1 class.

 

The I 45 torpedo

 
Service 1906(MTB's)-
Origin Fiume
Diameter 18"
Weight 624 Kg
Length 5.04 m
Warhead 85 Kg wet gun-cotton
Range 1000 m at 30 kts
Power plant 4 cylinder radial engine,
compressed air.

This torpedo was first used on torpedo boats (MTB). In the late 1930s when the Dutch submarine service was equipped more modern and better torpedoes, these torpedoes were used for exercises only. The Dutch even constructed adapters which made it possible to fire these 18" torpedoes from a 21" torpedo tube.

This torpedo was used on the O 2 class, K I class, O 6 class, O 7 class and the O 8 class.

 

The II 45 torpedo
 
Origin Fiume
Diameter 18"
Length >5 m
Warhead 85 Kg  wet gun-cotton
Engine 4 cylinder radial engine,
heated compressed air

This torpedo was first used on torpedo boats (MTB). In the late 1930s when the Dutch submarine service was equipped more modern and better torpedoes, these torpedoes were used for exercises only. The Dutch even constructed adapters which made it possible to fire these 18" torpedoes from a 21" torpedo tube.

This torpedo was used on the K I class, O 7 class, O 8 class and the K II class.

 

K I loading a torpedo (type unknown). Soerabaja 1919-1922  (Photo: © Collection G.D. Horneman)

K I loading a torpedo (type unknown). Soerabaja 1919-1922  (Photo: © Collection G.D. Horneman)

 

The III 45 torpedo
 
Service 1922 - 1946 (incl. surface fleet)
Origin Whitehead, Weymouth
and Saint Tropez.
Diameter 18"
Weight 785 Kg
Length 5.43 m
Warhead 165 Kg TNT
Range/Speed 2000 m at 40 kts
6000 m at 26 kts
Power plant 4 cylinder radial engine,
compressed air.

This torpedo entered the submarine service after World War I and was used until the beginning of World War II.

This torpedo was used on the K III class, K V class, K VIII class, K XI class and on board O 9 and O 10. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 129 (incl. surface fleet) III 45 torpedoes

 

The IV 45 torpedo
 
Service 1928 - 1946 (incl. surface fleet)
Origin British, Horten.
Diameter 18"
Weight 820 Kg
Length ?
Warhead 180 Kg TNT
Range/Speed 2500 m at 40 kts
6000 m at 28.5 kts
7500 m at 26.5 kts
Power plant ?

This torpedo was used for boats the K XI class. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 64 (incl. surface fleet) IV45 torpedoes. Also used on board the K XIV class during WWII.

 

The V 45 torpedo
 
Service 1930 - 1946 (incl. surface fleet)
Origin British, Fiume.
Diameter 18"
Weight 843 Kg
Length ?
Warhead 170 Kg TNT
Range/Speed 3000 m at 40 kts
8000 m at 28 kts
Power plant ?

This torpedo was used for boats that served in the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 20 (incl. surface fleet) V45 torpedoes

 

The I 53 torpedo
 
Service 1923 - 1946 (incl. surface fleet)
Origin British, Saint Tropez
Diameter 21"
Weight 1437 Kg
Length 6.84 m
Warhead 250 Kg TNT
Range/Speed 4000 m at 39 kts
10000 m at 26 kts
Power plant 4 cylinder radial engine,
compressed air.

This torpedo (the first 21"torpedo for the Dutch) entered the submarine service after World War I and was used until the beginning of World War II. The first of these 21" torpedoes arrived in the Netherlands in 1923. 

This torpedo was used on the K XI class and the O 9 class. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 27 (incl. surface fleet) I 53 torpedoes

 

The II 53 torpedo
 
Service 1928 - 1946 (incl. surface fleet)
Origin British, Weymouth
Diameter 21"
Weight 1525 Kg
Warhead 300 Kg TNT
Range 3000 m (effective)
4000 m at 42 kts
10000 m at 28 kts

This torpedo was used on the K XI class, O 12 class and the K XIV class. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 200 (incl. surface fleet) II 53 torpedoes. First unit ordered around 1924 and last unit delivered in 1932.

 

The III 53 torpedo
 
Service 1929 - 1946 (incl. surface fleet)
Origin British, Fiume
Diameter 21"
Weight 1534
Warhead 300 Kg TNT
Range 4000 m at 41 kts
10000 m at 28 kts

This torpedo was used on the O 12 class. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 60 (incl. surface fleet) III 53 torpedoes.

 

The IV 53 torpedo
 
Service 1935 - 1946 (incl. surface fleet)
Origin British, Weymouth
Diameter 21"
Weight 1560 Kg
Warhead 300 Kg TNT
Range 3000 m at 46 kts
10000 m at 29 kts

The O 16 (O 16 class) was the first Dutch submarine equipped with these torpedoes. 22 of these weapons were ordered for the O 16.

This torpedo was used on the O 16 class and the O 21 class. 

 

The V 53 torpedo
 
Service 1937 - 1946 (incl. surface fleet)
Origin Whitehead, Weymouth
Diameter 21"
Weight 1650 Kg
Length 7.2 m
Warhead 300/350 Kg TNT
Range/Speed 4000 m at 45 kts
12000 m at 28 kts
Power plant 2 cylinder (double) engine?

This torpedo entered the Dutch submarine service shortly before World War II and was used until the beginning of the war.

This torpedo was used on the O 19 and the O 21 class. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 252 (incl. surface fleet) V 53 torpedoes.

 

The Mk II torpedo
 
Service Beginning WW II -
Origin Whitehead, Weymouth
Design 1914
Diameter 21"
Weight 2794 lbs. TNT?
Warhead 225 lbs.
Range/Speed 10000 yds at 29 kts
Power plant Air-driven piston engine converted to
run on preheated oil-air mixture.

In the beginning of World War II the Dutch used their own 21" torpedoes. After the Dutch ran out of these, the British Mk II and Mk IV were used.

This torpedo was used on the O 12 class and the K XIV class.

 

The Mk IV torpedo
 
Service Beginning WW II -
Origin RN Torpedo Factory, Greenock (Scotland)
Design 1917
Diameter 21"
Length 22 ft 7.5 inch
Weight 3190 or 3206 lbs.
Buoyancy -445 lbs
Warhead 515 lbs TNT
Range/Speed 5000 or 6000 yds at 40 kts
9500 yds at 30 kts
Power plant Four cylinder wet-heater engine

In the beginning of World War II the Dutch used their own 21" torpedoes. After the Dutch ran out of these, the British Mk II and Mk IV were used. These torpedoes (Mark IV**) were first tested by the O 21 in Dec 1940. This torpedo was used on the O 21 class.

A 'statement of torpedo issue' from the O 19 lists a torpedo Mk IV*SD (SD stands for Submarine Dutch) and an O 19 note book list a torpedo type IV* (with could be set at 40 or 35 knots). But the listed speed/range of 40/20,000 on the 'statement of torpedo issue' seems far too high for a Mk IV torpedo. The document also list that the warhead consists of TORPEX, but the regular Mk IV had a TNT warhead.  Check out the mystery pictures page for more information.

According to John Roberts the MkIV*SD torpedoes were supplied to O 19, O 21, O 23 and O 24. These were to be fitted with MkVIII warheads in 1943 and the production of the latter was changed from TNT to Torpex in the same year.

A 'statement of torpedo issue' regarding the O 19, 19 Aug 1944. (Photo: © Collection J.J. Kragten). A 'statement of torpedo issue' regarding the O 19, 19 Aug 1944. (Photo: © Collection J.J. Kragten)

 

 

The Mk 8** or Mk VIII** torpedo
   
Service 1940 - ?
Origin Whitehead, Weymouth
Design About to enter production at the outbreak of war.
Diameter 21"
Length 21'7"
Weight 5452 lbs max., air 253 lbs, shale oil 30lbs
Negative buoyancy 804 lbs max
Warhead 805 lbs Torpex, orig, 722 lbs TNT
Air vessel 15.64 ft3, 3000 psi
Range/Speed 5000 yds at 45,5 kts
7000 yds at 41 kts
Power plant 4 cylinder radial engine, semi-diesel.
Brotherhood burner cycle.
Power 322 HP at 45 kts
Consumption 9.7 lbs / HP / Hr
Note This improved version had higher air pressure, larger propellers.
Modifications could run at 23 m (normally 13.4 m) and were strengthened for launching at 91 m
 

During World War II the Dutch first used their own and the British Mk II and Mk IV torpedoes. But as soon as the British produced enough Mk VIII** these torpedoes also became available for to the Dutch submarine service. After some small modifications these torpedoes could be fired by the Dutch submarines also. The torpedo was called the Mk VIII SD, SD stands for Submarine Dutch. During the war some British submarines were transferred to the Dutch navy (S, U and Zwaardvis (1) class), this definitely made the Mk VIII** part of the Dutch submarine service.
After World War II the last few torpedoes from Dutch origin were discarded and the Mk VIII** became the standard torpedo for the Dutch submarine service. The Mk VIII** was in service until 1978, the last version used was the Mk 8 mod 4. The MK VIII was also called 8/53.

This torpedo was used on the O 19 class, S class, U class, O 21 class, Zwaardvis (1) class and the Dolfijn & Potvis class

The Dutch Navy bought a total of  84 (incl. surface fleet) Mk 8 torpedoes.

O 21 and the torpedo work ship Mercuur (2), 1950. Note the torpedo (probably a MK VIII) being loaded. O 21 and the torpedo work ship Mercuur (2), 1950. Note the torpedo (probably a MK VIII) being loaded

 

The Mk 8 mod4 torpedo
 
Service ? - 1978
Origin Royal Navy
Diameter 21"
Warhead 300 Kg

This improved version of the Mk VIII** was in service until 1978.

 

The Mk 9 torpedo
 
Service 1943 - 1962
Diameter 21"
Length 7.2 m
Weight 1725 Kg
Warhead 365 Kg Torpex
Range/Speed 15000 m  at 40 kts
17000 m at 35 kts

It is not clear whether these torpedoes where ever used on board Dutch submarines. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 68 (incl. surface fleet) Mk 9 torpedoes.

 

The Mk X or  Mk X*** torpedo
 
Service .......................?
Origin .......................?
Year .......................?
Exploder .......................?
Range/Speed .......................?
Power plant .......................?

This torpedo was used on the O 21 class and  . . . .

British designation of the Mk X for the Dutch submarines was Mk X***. Some sources report that the Mk X*** is actually the G 7AD torpedo.

Please contact us if you have any information on this type of torpedo.

 

The Mk XIV  or  Mk 14 torpedo
 
Service 1943 (exact period unknown)
Origin US Navy
Year 1931
Exploder Magnetic
Diameter 21"
Weight 3280 lbs, air 256 lbs, alcohol 28 lbs, fresh water 83 lbs
Warhead 643 lbs Torpex
Length 20'6"
Range/Speed 4500 yds at 46 kts
9000 yds at 31,5 kts
Power plant Steam engine
Consumption 19,5 lbs / HP / Hr
Notes The 31 kts setting was rarely used during the war.

This little used low-speed was abandoned in 1943. It is reported that the K XV loaded this type of torpedo at the New London (US) base in 1943.

This torpedo was used on the K XIV class.

 

The G 7AD (T1)torpedo
 
Service 1941- 1945
Origin German Navy
Year 1933
Diameter 533.4 mm / 21"
Weight 1538 Kg
Length 7179 mm
Warhead 300 Kg Ekrasit / Hexanite
Range/Speed 6000 (6600) m at 44 kts
8000 m at 40 kts
14000 (15310) m at 30 kts
Power plant 4 cylinder radial engine (Brotherhood),
compressed air (wet heater).
Notes Engine converted to burn kerosene instead of decalin.

In 1940 84 of these German torpedoes were captured by the British. None of the British submarines were equipped with torpedo tubes long enough to carry this torpedo, therefore these torpedoes were transferred to the Dutch submarine service. The Dutch torpedo tubes had a length of 7,4 m, so the German torpedoes would fit easily. The Dutch called this torpedo G 7AD, the 'D' stands for 'Dutch'. Quite often a launched G AD ended up running on the surface. The speed was limited to 40 kts because of breaking surface at higher speeds. Later replaced by the Mk VIII**.

This torpedo was used on the O 21 class. 

Some additional info about the capture of these torpedoes was provided by Dennis Feary in Jan 2005: "...Dutch SSPapendrecht, 10954 tons, built Rotterdam Dry Dock Company, Dutch Company Van Ommeren?. Taken over by theGermans in1940 (while under construction?) and renamed Lotharingen. Boarded / captured by the Royal Navy and some 200 torpedoes found aboard. These did not fit the RN Ships because the torpedoes were too long. So were then passed to the Dutch Navy. As in the first instance the Germans had copied Dutch torpedoes, the Dutch submarine service made small modifications to them to use in their submarines – designated G 7 A D ( D for Dutch ). 

 

The G 7E (T2)torpedo
 
Service, trials only 1945 - ?
Origin German Navy
Year 1936
Diameter 534.5 mm / 21"
Weight 1608 Kg
Length 7129 / 7163 mm
Warhead 300 Kg
Range/Speed 5000 m at 30 kts at 1700 rpm
Power plant Batteries, two 13 T 210 with 52 cells
Engine Motor GL 231/75
91 v - 950 a - 71 kw at 1777 rpm
83 v - 885 a - 60 kw at 1590 rpm

The standard German torpedo of World War II. It suffered from early problems with its internal depth-keeping equipment, and its firing pistol, but these were solved after Germany's Norwegian Campaign.
A batch of these torpedoes was captured in the Netherlands by the Dutch at the end of World War II. Five or Six of these torpedoes were kept for trials.

 

The Mk 18 torpedo
  
Service 1953 - 1971
Origin Westinghouse/U.S. Navy.
Copy of the German G7 E.
Diameter 21"
Weight 3154 lbs
Length 20'5"
War head 575 lbs Torpex
Range Max 4000 m at 29 kts
Speed Max 30 kts
Power plant Electric, lead batteries with
a weight of approx. 750 Kg

In 1953 two U.S. Navy Guppy type submarines (Walrus (1) class) were loaned to the Royal Netherlands Navy. These submarines were armed with the Mk 23 and the Mk 18 torpedo. In 1953 10 Mk 18's and 58 Mk 23's arrived in the Netherlands, the torpedoes were also on loan.

This torpedo was used on the Walrus (1) class. The Dutch Navy 'bought' a total of 10 Mk18 torpedoes.

 

The Mk 23 torpedo
 
Service 1953 - 1971
Origin U.S. Navy
Diameter 21"
Weight 1446 Kg
Length 6.24 m
Warhead 271.8 Kg Torpex
Range 4500 yds
Speed 45 kts
Power plant Steam turbine

In 1953 two U.S. Navy Guppy type submarines (Walrus (1) class) were loaned to the Royal Netherlands Navy. These submarines were armed with the Mk 23 and the Mk 18 torpedo. In 1953 10 Mk 18's and 58 Mk 23's arrived in the Netherlands.

This torpedo was used on the Walrus (1) class. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 56 Mk23 torpedoes.

 

The Mk 20 torpedo
 
Service 1957?-?
1961 - 1972 (incl. surface fleet)
Origin British
Diameter 21"
Type Anti submarine
Guidance Passive, acoustic
Frequency 45 KHz

This torpedo was used on the Zwaardvis (1) class. The Dutch Navy bought a total of 32 (incl. surface fleet) Mk 20 torpedoes

 

The Mk 37 mod2 torpedo
 
Service Late 1960s -
Origin Northrop, U.S.
Design 1967
Diameter 19"
Length 161"
Weight 1690 lbs.
Warhead 145 Kg
Power plant Silver-zinc batteries
Guidance Wire-guided, active/passive homing
Frequency 60 KHz
Notes Originally an anti submarine torpedo

Wire guided version developed from the mod1 version of the Mk 37 torpedo (1955). The internal wire reel is carried in an extender section between the after body and the tail cone.  The major improvements of the Mk 37mod2 were increased acoustic acquisition range at deep depth, reduced susceptibility to surface seeking at shallow depths, improved shallow water performance (homing improvement), and better reliability and maintainability.

The torpedo can be command-enabled, receiving course changes in 2 deg/signal increments. It sends status signals (fin velocity switch activation, enable acquisition, and loss of target) back down the guidance wire. Preset operating depths are 200, 150, 100, and 40 ft.  The anti-capture (anti surface-homing, tested in 1966) circuits are disabled when the torpedo runs below 200 ft in deep water or when it is homing passively. The torpedo can be set to run at constant depth (40, 100, 150,or 200 ft) while homing (before terminal manoeuvres), when above 100 ft depth in deep water, or when in shallow water. A helical snake search pattern is used when water depth is greater than 150 ft (2700 ft dia, 1000 ft maximum depth). Active acquisition range is 900+ yd at 900 ft depth. The Mk 37mod2 uses a ceramic transducer in place of the previous magnetostrictive one, which lost sensitivity at greater depth.

The Dutch Navy bought a total of 115 Mk 37 torpedoes.

In 1975 the Dutch Submarine service started upgrading the Mk 37 mod2 into the NT 37 C mod2.

Mk 37 torpedo loaded on board a Dolfijn class submarine Mk 37 torpedo loaded on board a Dolfijn class submarine

 

The NT 37 C mod2 torpedo
 
Origin Honeywell, U.S.
Type Dual purpose
Design 1968 - 1973
Diameter 19"
Range 18000 yd at 36 kts
40500 yd at 23.8 kts
Speed Max speed 33 Kt
Power plant Engine running on Otto-Fuel II

These are modified Mk 37 mod2 torpedoes. The Dutch navy bought this 'kit' (100000$ a piece) and in 1975 the modifications were started. This modification included the replacement of the silver-zinc batteries and electric motor by an 90 HP engine running on Otto-Fuel II (from the Mk 46-1). Speed increased by 40% and range by 125% (endurance by 80%). High speed made it an effective straight-running anti ship torpedo.
Other improvements are true dual purpose capability, it could be set in 3 modes: 1) straight running at high speed with depth control. 2) Delayed homing, the torpedo running straight but searching if it misses, or beginning its search at a preset time/range. 3) full passive homing as in the original Mk 37.

 

In 1984 the Dutch Submarine service started modifying the NT 37 C mod2 into the NT 37 C/D/E.

On 7 June 1990 the last NT 37 C mod2 torpedo (exercise version) was fired.

 

The NT 37 C/D/E torpedo
 
Service 1984 -
Origin Honeywell / Northrop (NT)
Diameter 19"
Warhead 150 Kg
Range 20 km (10.8 nm)
Speed 35 kts
Guidance wire-guided, active/passive homing

These are modified Mk 37 C mod2 torpedoes. The NT 37 C was upgraded first to the D type which incorporated a new homing head / acoustic system. The D type was tested by the Dutch in the Mediterranean in 1987. The NT 37 D was in its turn upgraded (late 1980s) to the E type, which incorporated a new guidance system (the 'E' stands for 'Electronic').
The NT 37 D is type C plus a new solid-state (vice vacuum tube) acoustic panel.
The NT 37 E is type D plus a new digital programmable (rather than analogue) guidance system (whose autopilot can be programmed to take the torpedo to specific geographical coordinates, e.g., for a harbour attack). The system incorporates additional anti ship run patterns. It also incorporates a self-noise-reduction nose assembly (with baffling to protect the transducer from engine and hull noise, and with a new nose shape to reduce flow noise, and a solid state guidance system (this means that all the vacuum tubes and relays are replaced by integrated circuits). All these modifications increase active detection range  by 50-90% and passive detection range by 100-200%, partly because with less flow noise the acoustic system can be made more sensitive. Performance also improves at higher speed and in shallow water, in both cases thanks to noise reduction.

In 1995 the Zwaardvis (2) submarine class was decommissioned and therefore the NT 37 torpedo retired from active service also. Although it is possible to fire this torpedo with a Walrus (2) class submarine, the torpedo probably kept on stock only.

 

The Mk 48 mod4 torpedo
 
Origin Honeywell
Contractor Gould
Type Anti: fast, deep-diving nuclear submarines
and high performance surface ships
Diameter 21"
Length +/- 5.79 m
Weight +/- 1545 Kg
Warhead 267 Kg HE
Fuse Standoff (Proximity) fuse for under-the-keel
explosions
Range 38 km (20.5 nm) active
50 km (27 nm) passive
Speed 55 kts active
40 kts passive
Depth > 365 m
Guidance wire-guided, active/passive homing
Frequency 20 KHz
Power plant Air Turbine Pump Discharge (ATPD) system;
liquid (Otto) fuelled swash plate engine with
pump jet propulsion.
Cost As always different sources list different cost:
Estimated at 2,2 million US$ (1986)
Estimated at 2,1 million US$ (1992)
Estimated at 1 - 1,5 million US$ (1996)
Estimated at 2,5 million US$ (1998)

The Mk 48 mod4 is designed to combat fast, deep-diving nuclear submarines and high performance surface ships and is the standard torpedo for the Walrus (2) submarine class. Mk 48 mod4 torpedoes can operate with or without wire guidance and use active and/or passive homing. When launched they execute programmed target search, acquisition and attack procedures. It can also conduct multiple re-attacks if it misses the target. The Mk 48 mod4 also incorporates TELCOM. TELCOM adds a 2-way wire link, allowing the torpedo operator to exploit the torpedo's own sonar, TELCOM transmits 14 torpedo and target parameters once each second. The Mk 48 mod4 was a transitional step towards the well known U.S. Navy Mk 48 ADCAP torpedo. In 1980 100 Mk 48's were supplied to the Royal Netherlands Navy.

The Mk 48 mod4 M is an upgrade all current (2005) Mk 48 users are implementing or have implemented. The Dutch Navy started upgrading early 2004.The upgraded consists of atleast the following improvements:

Mk 48 torpedo loaded on board a Walrus (2) class submarine. Mk 48 torpedo loaded on board a Walrus (2) class submarine.

 

The Mk 48 ADCAP torpedo
 
Service Not yet in Dutch service
Weight +/- 1663 Kg
Warhead 295 Kg HE
Range 20 km (11 nm) at 65 kts. (Navy report 1996)
27 km (14 nm) at 65 kts.
45 km (24 nm) at 40 kts.
Depth > 365 m (officially)
> 900 m
Guidance wire-guided, active/passive homing
Cost As always different sources list different cost:
Estimated at 3,5 million US$ (1998) for Mk 48 ADCAP
Estimated at 2,5 million US$ (2000) for Mk 48
Notes Check Mk 48 mod4 for other specs.

ADCAP (ADvanced CAPability) is an extensively modified version of the Mk 48 mod5 (follow-up of the Mk 48 mod4) with greater speed and endurance and a new seeker. The fuel rate to the swashplate engine is increased to add power (and more allowance is made for speed variation); more fuel is carried, in space liberated by a more compact computer. The new nose (transducer, electronically steered sonar with beam-former, and new signal processor) improves acquisition range, including range at high torpedo speed. A wider sonar field or view reduces the need for the torpedo to manoeuvre as it approaches its target. The ADCAP MODS program, suited to shallow-water operation against quit diesel submarines incorporates: a guidance and control software block upgrade and a torpedo propulsion upgrade (both restructured in 1993-94). There is also an upgrade to the analogue sonar transmitter. The guidance and control unit was tested beginning in October 1993. Other software tests were scheduled to start in 1996 and 1997. The advance sonar waveforms and computer processing were due for US fleet introduction in 1998.

It is expected that when the US Navy receives an upgraded version of the ADCAP the Dutch Submarine Service will receive the 'basic' ADCAP.

 

The Sub-Harpoon missile
 
Origin McDonnell Douglas
Warhead 227 Kg
Range 130 km (70 nm) active radar homing
Speed 0.9 mach
Guidance pre-programmed, active radar homing

The Walrus (2) class submarines can fire the Sub-Harpoon, but none are bought.

Exercise Harpoon being loaded aboard Warus (2). Date and place unknown. Please contact us when you have more information on this photo. Exercise Harpoon being loaded aboard Warus (2). Date and place unknown. Please contact us when you have more information on this photo.

 

 

Some info regarding Torpedo & Mine Explosives
           
Name Description Formula g/ccm Kj/Kg Power*
Ekrasit Same as picric acid. - - - -
HBX HBX-1 and HBX-3 are castable mixtures of RDX, TNT, powdered aluminium, and D-2 wax with calcium chloride. These explosives are used in missile warheads and underwater ordnance. ? ? ? -
HBX-1:RDX (including Nitrocellulose, Calcium Chloride and Calcium Silicate) 40.4 %, TNT 37.8 %, Al  17.1 %, Wax & Lecithin 4.7 %. Percentages may vary.   1.69 - 1.74    Under water shock 1.11
Under water bubble1.45
HBX-3: RDX (including Nitrocellulose, Calcium Chloride and Calcium Silicate) 31.3 %, TNT 29 %, Al  34.8 %, Wax & Lecithin 4.9 %. Percentages may vary.   1.81 - 1.86   Under water shock 1.01
Under water bubble1.91
H-6 H-6 is an explosive that is a castable mixture of RDX (including Nitrocellulose, Calcium Chloride and Calcium Silicate) 45.1 % , TNT 29.2 %, powdered Aluminium 21 % and 4.7 %Wax & Lecithin. ? 1.75   >1.65
HMX High Melting eXplosive. Cyclotetramethylene Tetranitramine, Also called Octogen. More powerful than RDX. C4H8N8O8 1.96
(ß-form)
1387 1.7
HE High Explosive. A high explosive is characterized by the extreme rapidity with which its decomposition occurs; this action is known as detonation. When initiated by a blow or shock, it decomposes almost instantaneously, either in a manner similar to an extremely rapid combustion or with rupture and rearrangement of the molecules themselves. ? ? ? ?
Hexanite Mixture of TNT and hexyl. Usually 60%  TNT and 40 % Hexyl
slightly more powerful than TNT.
? 1.05 ? ?
Hexyl Also known as Dipicrylamine, Hexamine, Hexite or Hexanitrodiphenylamine. In an often used mixture with TNT
it is called Hexanite.

C12H5N7O12

1.64

1098

?
Minol Minols are mixtures of TNT, Ammonium Nitrate and Aluminium. This type of compound is likely to be used for maritime warfare, as it is "waterproof". It must not be fired from gun barrels, because it will positively detonate when exposed over 250 g acceleration. The high part of aluminium-grinding is increasing the detonation-gases thus implementing the mine-effect, especially underwater. Minol is a trademark of DuPont, USA, 1941. Production has been discontinued, as there are more powerful derivates available. This explosive seems to be developed by Belgium naval forces in the late 1930's. > The German equivalent was "Füllstoff 23" used in contact-mines only. ? 1.62 - 1.74 ? ?
Minol-1: 48% TNT, 42% ammonium nitrate and 10% aluminium. Percentages may vary.   1.68    
Minol-2: 40% TNT, 40% ammonium nitrate and 20% aluminium. Percentages may vary.        
Minol-3: 42% TNT, 38% ammonium nitrate and 20% aluminium. Percentages may vary.        
Minol-4: 40% TNT, 40 % A & K nitrate (90-10) and 20% aluminium. Percentages may vary.        
Type 97 The standard explosive charge was 60% TNT and 40% Hexanite (Hexanitrodiphenylamine) in blocks. This had first been developed by the Germans in 1907 and was very resistant to shock. 7% more powerful than 100% TNT. ? ? ? ?
Picric acid Trinitrophenol. Also known as Pertit, Pikrinit, Melinit, Ekrasit and Shimose. Widely used military explosive in WWI and WWII. More sensitive than TNT. C6H3N3O7 1.763 4350 ?
PBX Plastic Bonded eXplosive. PBX is a term applied to a variety of explosive mixtures which have high mechanical strength, good explosive properties, excellent chemical stability, relative insensitivity to handling and shock, and high thermal output sensitivity. PBX's contain a high percentage of basic explosives such as RDX, HMX, HNS, or PETN in a mixture with a polymeric binder. - - - -
RDX Royal Demolition eXplosive in the U.K. and Research Department eXplosive in the USA., Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine Also referred to as Cyclonite, T 4, or Hexogen. RDX is a white crystalline solid usually used in mixtures with other explosives, oils, or waxes; it is rarely used alone. It has a high degree of stability in storage but is very sensitive to heat and shock C3H6N6O6 1.82 1394 1.5
Shimose Another name for Picric Acid. A mixture of TNT and picric acid. Also another name for Type 97. - - - -
TNT Trinitrotoluene, commonly known as TNT, is a constituent of many explosives, such as Amatol, Pentolite, Tetrytol, Torpex, Tritonal, Picratol, Ednatol, and Composition-B. It has been used under such names as Triton, Trotyl, Trilite, Trinol, and Tritolo. C7H5N3O6 1.64

870

1
Torpex TORPedo EXplosive aka TPX. A mixture of 37-41% TNT, 41- 45% RDX (Cyclonite, Cyclomethylene Trinitramine), 18% aluminium.
Torpex is attractive because of the increased explosive energy and higher detonation velocity of RDX as compared to TNT and the prolongation of the pressure wave by the aluminium. On a weight basis, Torpex is conservatively estimated to be about 50% more effective than TNT as an underwater explosive against ships. However, Torpex is more sensitive than TNT and RDX is expensive and difficult to make safely.
In the late 1940s Torpex was replaced by HBX, then H-6 in the 1960s and by PBX in the 1970s.
? 1.81 ? 1.61
Wet gun-cotton Wet gun-cotton is not affected by shock, failing to explode when penetrated by rifle bullets, or when loaded in shells, upon shock of discharge; is comparatively insensible to sympathetic explosion, and is not exploded by heat. ? ? ? 0.5

*=  Explosive power compared to TNT

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