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The Turkish submarine Birindji-In-Uni in Rotterdam. The Turkisch submarine Birindji-In-Uni in Rotterdam.

For additional photos and information please check the 'related pages list' at the bottom of this page.

Main sources: Stealth at Sea, by Dan van der Vat and Jari Aromaa's Finnish Navy in WWII website


After World War I Germany was still supreme submarine designer and expert in the world. Great Britain, USA, France, Italy and Japan were allowed to acquire some German boats for study, these should be scrapped by 1922. Smaller countries also wanted that information but did not get any boats. Japan, Soviet Union, and Argentina were first countries that contacted Germany for purchasing submarine drawings and hiring former submarine experts. In 1920 Germaniawerft and Vulkan-Werft sold plans of a submarine cruiser to Japan. Eight boats were built. Starting in 1924 the Japanese built three mine laying submarines in cooperation with Blohm&Voss yard in Kobe. Argentina invited the Germans to supervise the construction of a ten-strong submarine-service in a Argentinean yard by a Krupp-led consortium from 1921. In 1922 Italy and Sweden availed themselves of the expertise of German submarine designers. Spain was interested. Between the wars German submarine business appeared to be on the verge of booming. But article 191 of the Versailles treaty sad: "The construction and acquisition of any kind of submarine, even for trade purposes, is forbidden to Germany." How could Germany coordinate the exploitation of its technical supremacy when it was illegal to restart submarine construction inside the country ?.

The answer was to move to the neighbouring Netherlands. In July 1922 the innocuously named Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw (IvS or InKaVos, engineer-office for shipbuilding) was formed with a nominal capital of 12,000 guilders, put up in equal parts by the AG Vulkan yard in Hamburg and Stettin and the two Krupp-owned yards, Germaniawerft, Kiel, and AG Weser, Bremen. One important submarine builder, the Blohm&Voss yard, was not in the IvS and in fact it competed with IvS in Spain 1924-25.
The objective of IvS  was warship design and construction for export in order to maintain German know-how. The technical director was DR. Techel and the commercial director was ex-Commander Ulrich Blum, late of the U-boat service. As they waited for the Dutch company registration to pass the bureaucratic and political obstacles, they worked quietly in temporary office at the Germaniawerft, building up a technical team.

But Argentina changed its mind in 1924 as there was no funding, Italy lost interest and fierce competition was developing in Spain over the country's grand plan to acquire forty submarines. The intimate relationship between the German Navy and the 'Dutch' IvS is demonstrated by the fact that the German Navy itself persuaded Blohm und Voss, the Hamburg shipbuilders also dabbling the submarine market, to assign their license to install M.A.N. diesels, which the Spaniards favoured, to the 'Dutch' IvS. But Spain too changed its mind in 1925 as the 'Dutch' IvS finally set up shop in 's-Gravenhage, after failing to win a single firm order from fifty-three tenders. The best hope was now for two small boats for Turkey, to be built at the Fijenoord yard in Rotterdam.

In Jan 2006 Arvo Vercamer wrote: "......On 14 April 1924, IvS made a proposal to Estonia for the construction of a 245 ton coastal submarine - it was given the project code of Pu-22.  A contract proposal was also made to Finland at the same time - I think that the project code was Pu-24 or Pu-26 - for a similarly sized coastal submarine.  Estonia declined the IvS offier. (Source:  Eberhard R?ssler - The Submarine; Arms and Armor Press; London; UK; 1981; ISBN 0-85368-115-5; page 93.)....."

The three German yards behind the 'Dutch' IvS were in no position to boost the company's chances by providing the large subsidies it clearly needed for a breakthrough. The only other likely source was the German Navy, which was  very keen to keep German construction skills alive. Since it could not for political reasons afford to be seen backing the 'Dutch' IvS, some of the secret funds available to the 'Sea Transport Section' of the German Navy, led by Captain Walter Lohmann, were channelled into the 'Dutch' IvS through a German dummy company set up by the German Navy Office: Mentor Bilanz, purporting to be an accounting consultancy. It now became the fourth shareholder in the 'Dutch' IvS. Its director, it need hardly be said, was another former U-boat captain, but the real mentor was newly retired Lt. Hans Schottky, who was to liaise between Mentor, the 'Dutch' IvS and the German Navy. At the same time Lohmann set up a front company called TeBeG-mbH, German acronym for 'Technical advise and supply company limited', whose real purpose was to enable Germany to build submarines in the event of war. It was headed by a retired junior Captain. Both front companies brazenly kept their registered offices in the same German Navy building in Berlin. At the same time Captain Arno Spindler, a former U-boat Flotilla Commander still in the service, was given charge of a new 'anti submarine defence' section in the German Navy Office, to lay the foundations of a new U-boat arm. Independently of the 'Dutch' IvS, Mentor Bilanz in 1927 set up a 'technical department' - really the German Navy's U-boat construction office-in-waiting.

The two Turkish submarines Ikindji-In-Uni (front) and Birindji-In-Uni at the Fijenoord shipyard 1927/1928.

The man on the left is Jan Johannes De Kloe II, father of the photographer Jan Johannes De Kloe III . (Photo: © Collection Jan Johannes De Kloe IV)

The two Turkish submarines Ikindji-In-Uni (front) and Birindji-In-Uni at the Fijenoord shipyard 1927/1928. The man on the left is Jan Johannes De Kloe II, father of the photographer Jan Johannes De Kloe III . (Photo: © Collection Jan Johannes De Kloe IV)

Thus encouraged by the German Navy and its secret submarine network, the 'Dutch' IvS got a firm order from Turkey for two medium submarines, derived from the UB III type of larger coastal boat, displacing 505/620 tons. Both were completed at the Dutch Fijenoord, which was purchased by Krupp in order to build these boats, yard by March 1927 and exhaustively tested at sea by 'retired' German submariners before making their way independently to Turkey a year later. The German ex-officers who delivered them stayed on to found a submarine school. Besides the German ex-officers several Dutch men from the Fijenoord shipyard were also part of the crew that sailed the submarines to Turkey.   Click here for more technical info on these Turkish IvS submarines.


In 1926 Finland ordered three boats, advanced versions of the UC III design (a 493/715-ton minelayer), for construction in a Finnish yard under German supervisors, including Schottky. The class was named the Vetehinen class. Click here for more technical info on these Finnish IvS submarines.

The Finnish Vetehinen class The Finnish Vetehinen class.

The contract took more than three years to complete because of the harsh winters and local inexperience. The Finns placed another order with the 'Dutch' IvS for a ninety-nine-ton minelayer in 1929, completed in the following year under Schottky' s supervision. This class was named Saukko 

The Finnish Saukko The Finnish Saukko.

Protracted negotiations with Spain from 1926 to 1929 led to the construction (for a Spanish yard Horacio Echevarrieta), under the 'Dutch' IvS auspices in Rotterdam (with engines and parts direct from Germany) for final assembly in Cadiz, of EI, a +/- 650t boat based on the experimental UG design of 1918. The establishment of the Spanish Republic in 1932 meant that Madrid never bought the boat, financed by the German Navy from secret rearmament funds. But the experience was held to be worth the five million marks spent. Originally the components, which were constructed in the Netherlands, were to be build together at the Spanish Echevarrietta y Larrinaga yard in Cadiz. Eventually the submarine was completed in the Netherlands. The boat was purchased in 1934 by the Turkish Navy. The submarine, renamed Gür, was delivered in January 1935. This design was also used for the first post WW-I U 25 and U 26 (type I-A) boats of the German Reichsmarine. Click here for more technical info on this Spanish IvS submarine. For more information on this type, the I-A, check out Uboat.net

In the meantime, however, attempts to boost secret military funds by speculation led to press exposés, questions in the Reichstag and the resignation of the German Defence Minister, Otto Gessler, early in 1928. The focus of the scandal was Captain Lohmann of Sea Transport, but the furore was about misuse of public funds, not secret submarine programs. TeBeG and Mentor Bilanz were wound up, Lohmann resigned and his department was abolished. When the dust settled, a new dummy company, Igewit GmbH (German acronym for 'engineer-office for economics and technology company limited') was quietly formed by the German Naval Staff later in the year, directed by ex-Lt. Schottky, who also tidily succeeded the promoted Spindler as head of the 'anti' submarine section in 1929

The Finns, satisfied with their first four German-built boats, in 1930 ordered a 250-ton, single-hulled coastal submarine from the 'Dutch' IvS. (loosely based on the UF experimental type of 1917). But in fact IvS themselves ordered this 250 ton boat from the Crichton-Vulcan yard in October 1930. The previous boats had been ordered by the Finnish Government, but this one was not and it was officially described as a commercial prototype of the Crichton-Vulcan yard. This boat was to be the prototype of rapid construction submarine for the German Navy: Type IIa, the "Einbäume". It was agreed, in March 1931, between Ministry of Defence and Crichton-Vulcan that Finland had option to buy the boat till the end of 1937. The boat was constructed at Crichton-Vulcan in Turku (laid down 1 Aug 1931, launched 1 May 1933) and was known for several years only by its construction number CV 707. From its completion in 1933 it was extensively used and tested by Germans. Finnish Government bought the boat finally in 1936 and it was named Vesikko. It was the best boat in the Finnish submarine fleet. Click here for more technical info on this Finnish IvS submarine.

The Finnish Vesikko The Finnish Vesikko.

In 1930 Sweden ordered three 540-ton mine laying submarines from Kockums Mekaniska Verkstad. These boats, Delfinen, Nordkaparen, and Springaren, were designed by IvS but were constructed using Swedish standards and methods. (Do you have more info on these Swedish subs then please email us at webmaster@dutchsubmarines.com) Click here for more technical info on these Swedish IvS submarines.

The Swedish Delfinen. Probably in 1942 off the Swedish coast. (Photo: © Kockums).
The Swedish Delfinen. Probably in 1942 off the Swedish coast. (Photo: © Kockums).

After the tests of E 1 in Cadiz in 1931, IvS offered same boat to the Soviet Union. The Soviet experts wanted some changes, most important being more powerful engines and a Russian designed deck gun. The former required an increase in size of the machine spaces. Russian engineers were sent to the IvS office at Deschimag in Bremen to participate in the design work. The project E II (also named 224 II) was a 828/1080 ton boat. The modified drawings were completed in March 1934 and construction of the boats N 1 to N 3 began in 1934 at Ordzhonikidze yard in Leningrad. These boats were renamed in 1936 to S 1 - S 3 and the class was known as Srednaja, middle size. Thus the "S" was not for "Stalinetz". In the Red Fleet the boats were called Nemka, "German girl" because of their German origin. The construction of these three Series IX submarines was immediately followed by the large number of Series IX-bis Click here for more technical info on these Russian IvS submarines.


During its existence IvS delivered submarine designs to:

- Italy, probably for Romanian submarines (please contact us if you have any information on the IvS designs for Italy).
- Finland
- Sweden
- Romania
- Chile (please contact us if you have any information on the IvS designs for Chile).
- Argentina (please contact us if you have any information on the IvS designs for Argentina).
- Turkey
- Spain
- Estonia (please contact us if you have any information on the IvS designs for Estonia).
- Russia.


Visit the Export subs for Turkey, Export subs for Sweden and Export subs for Finland page for more photos of these export subs and visit Jari Aromaa.'s website 'Finnish Navy in World War II' for more info on IvS.


IvS submarines for Turkey and Spain

Boat Birinci Inönü or
Ikinci Inönü or
E1, renamed
Yard # 304 305 Dutch: 315
Spanish: ECH 21
Type Small coastal submarine Medium size sea-going patrol submarine
Ordered 1925 by Turkey 1928 by Spain
1934 by Turkey
Laid down - - 25 Mar 1929
Launched 29 Jan or1 Feb 1927 12 Mar 1927 22 Oct 1930
Completed March 1927 1932
Trials 30 Apr 1927 - Jun 1927 May 1931
Commissioned Arrived in Turkish waters on June 9/10th 1928 Spanish Navy: Never
Turkish Navy: 27 Dec 1934, delivered in 1935
Decommissioned Disposed of in 1950 -
Design By the Dutch company IvS.
Derived from the German WWI UB III type -
Shipyard Maatschappij voor Scheeps- en Werktuigbouw Fijenoord
Schiedam, the Netherlands
Prefabricated hull shipped to the Echevarrieta y Larringa shipyard at Cadiz, Spain
Le x Be x Dr 58.68 m x 5.8 m x 3.5 m 72.4 m x 6.2 m x 4.1 m
Displacement 505 t / 620 t 685 t / 755 t / 965 t
Engines Two M.A.N. diesels, 2 x 1100 bhp Two M.A.N. diesels, 2 x 1440 hp
Main motor 2 x 700 hp 2 x 500 hp
Speed surf/subm 13.5 kts / 8.5 kts 20 kts / 9 kts
Range - 6400 nm at 9.5 kts surf.
1880 nm at 18.5 kts surf.
101 nm at 4 kts subm.
Diving depth - 80 m
Complement 4 officers, 25 ratings 5 officers, 37 ratings
Torpedo tubes 4 x 17.7" bow, 2 x 17.7: stern 4 x 21" bow, 2 x 21" stern
Armament - 14 torpedoes
Guns 1 x 3", 1 x 20 mm machine gun 1 x 4", 1 x 20 mm AA
Notes First submarines to be built for  Turkey after WWI. Both boats depart for Turkey on the 22nd of May 1928 For more info on the E1 check the  Prepared for All website.


Almost all technical details below are from the Finnish Navy in WWII website

IvS submarines for Finland

Boat/Class Vetehinen Vesihiisi Iku-Turso Saukko Vesikko
Class Vetehinen Saukko Vesikko
Yard # CV 702 CV 703 CV704 SA 241 CV 707
Type Minelayer Double-hull Minelayer Single-hull Coastal boat Single-hull
Ordered 16 Sep 1926 4 Mar 1927 4 Mar 1927 Apr 1928 9 Oct 1930
Laid down - - - Aug 1931 1 Aug 1931-
Launched 1 June 1930 1 Aug 1930 5 May 1931 2 July 1930 10 May 1933
Commissioned 13 Oct 1930 2 Dec 1930 13 Oct 1930 16 Dec 1930 Bought by Finland: 13 Jan 1936
Design IvS project Pu89 IvS project Pu110 IvS project 179?
Prototype German type-IIa
Shipyard Crichton-Vulcan, Turku Hietalahden Sulkutelakka ja Konepaja, Helsinki Crichton-Vulcan, Turku
Le x Be x Dr 63.5 m x 6.2 m x 3.6 m 32.4 m x 4.1 m x 2.9 m 40.9 m x 4.1 m x 4.2 m
Displacement 493 t / 716 t 99 t / 136 t 250 t / 300 t
Engines 2 x 580 HP Polar-Atlas Diesel (515 rpm). 6 cyl., four-stroke 200 HP Krupp - Germaniawerft Diesel 2 x 350 HP Motors - Werke - Mannheim
(MWM RS 127 S) Diesel
Main motor 2 x 360 HP Brown-Boveri electric motors (420 rpm) 120 HP electric motors 2 x 180 HP Siemens electric motors
Fuel 16 t 18 t 9.6 t
Batteries Tudor AB 2 x 62 cells, 6350 Ah total 32 battery groups 62 cells, 6380 Ah total
Speed surf/subm 12.6 kts / 8.5 kts 9 kts / 5.7 kts 10.5 kts / 8 kts
Range 1500 nm at 10 kts surf.
75 nm at 4 kts subm.
375 nm at 8 kts surf.
45 nm at 4 kts subm.
1500 nm at 10 kts surf.
50 nm at 4 kts subm.
Diving depth 75 m 75 m 100 m, in 45 sec to 9,3 meters
Complement 3 officers, 5 senior petty officers, 9 petty officers, 13 men. 2 officers, 2 senior petty officers, 4 petty officers, 7 men 2 officers, 5 senior petty officers, 6 petty officers, 7 men
Torpedo tubes Dutch Fijenoord type.
2 x 53 cm bow, 2 x 53 cm stern. Torp. length 6.6 m
2 x 45 cm bow 
Torp. length 5.7 m
3 x 53 cm bow
Mine shafts Constructed to adapt German submarine mines. One shaft could take three 650 kg mines or one 850 kg and one 650 kg mine - -
Armament 6 torpedoes, 20 mines 2 torpedoes ?, 9 and 6 mines. 5 torpedoes, no mines
Guns 76/48 Bofors, 20 mm Madsen, 12.7 mm m.g. 12.7 mm m.g. 1 x 20 mm Madsen
Periscopes Dutch Nedinsco which was located in Venlo and owned by Zeiss.
2 x 6800 mm stroke, magnification 1.6 and 6.0, diam 150 mm.
Aerial scope with 0 - 90o elevation had diam of 60 mm at the top.
Attack scope with -10...+20o elevation had diam of 30 mm at the top.
Periscope length 5700 mm, top diameter 31 mm 2 Carl Zeiss Nedinsco scopes
Sonar     Atlas Werke 2x6 microphones
Fresh water     1.2 t
Notes Riveted construction. During the design phase the size of the boat increased many times and therefore the diesel power had to be increased from 530 hp to 580 hp. In addition the pressure hull strength calculations had to be done again and as a result, nine frames had to be strengthened.  Designed to operate in a lake. The boat could be dismantled to facilitate rail transport. Hull would go into two parts and conning tower removed. The engines would remain in the aft section of the hull and batteries in the front section Built from St 52 steel instead of St 42 that had been used in older boats.

Boat was not a government order. Only after the Germans (1933-34) and the Finns (1935) tested the boat it was obtained by the Navy.

Vesikko took part in WWII with other Finnish submarines in the Baltic Sea and in the Gulf of Finland. In July 1941 she orpedoed the Russian 4100 tons transport ship Vyborg. During the last years of the
war Vesikko was mostly employed on escort duties. In the Paris Peace treaty of 1947 Finland was forbidden to have submarines and in 1953 all of them except Vesikko were sold for scrap. After an extensive and
time-consuming restoration Vesikko was opened to the public as museum
submarine on the Navy's anniversary 9th July 1973.

Today Vesikko is part of the Suomenlinna Military Museum outside Helsinki.

  For more info on the Finnish boats visit the Finnish Navy in World War II website


Almost all technical details below are from the book
  Submarines of the Russian and Soviet Navies 1718-1990
Major corrections and additions provided by K. Strelbitsky and V. Aleksey.

IvS submarines for Russia

Boat S 1 S 2 S 3
Project name Apr 1936 Voroshilovetz Molotovetz Kalininetz
Original name
until  20 Oct '37
N 1 N 2 N 3
Yard # S - 266 S - 267 S - 268
Original name Nalim is often reported
but that is incorrect
- -
Class S or Stalinetz or Srednaja
Type E II or 224 II
Design Originally E I design from Jul 1933
Modified Modified designs completed in March 1934
Series designation IX
Ordered   - -
Laid down 25 Dec 1934 31 Dec 1934 25 Apr 1935
Launched 8 Aug 1935 21 Dec 1935 30 Apr 1936
Commissioned 11 Sep 1936 11 Sep 1936 8 Jul 1938-
Fate 24 Jun 1941 blown up by crew in Naval Repair Yard Tosmare (Libawa, Soviet Union; Liepaja, Latvija) to prevent capture by the German. Later salved by German Pioniere and scrapped. Also reported: 3 Jan 1940 sunk by Mine (laid by Finnish Minelayer Louhi (ex Russian Voin) near Märket Island, Oland Sea, Baltic with all hands (50 men). In 1999 the wreck was searched by Swedish Divers Sunk 24 Jun 1941 by German E-Boats (Schnellboote) S 35 and S 60 in Baltic near Cap Uzava (Backhofen, Latvian coast) with many killed. (47 men of crew S-3, 39 man of crew S-, unknown number of men from  S-1, M-71, M-80 (which subs where scuttled in Libawa) and some Latvian yard workers. 20 men salved by the Germans, all members of Crews S-1, M-71 and M-80
Design IvS / Deschimag 
Shipyard Shipyard Number 189, Baltijskij sudostroitel’nyj zawod imeni G.K. Ordzonikidze in Leningrad (Saint-Petersburg).
Le x Be x Dr 77.75 m x 6.4 m x 4.04 m
Displacement 840 t / 1070 t
Propulsion Diesel-Electric
Engines 2 x MANM6V 49/48 diesels, 4000 bhp
Main motor 2 x electric motors, 1100 shp
Shafts 2
Fuel 100 t
Batteries 2 x 62 cell type 38 MAK-700
Speed surf/subm 19.5 kts / 9 kts
Range 3380 nm surf. at 19.5 kts
9800 nm surf. at 10.4 kts
9 nm subm. at 9 kts
148 nm subm. at 3 kts
45 days operational endurance
Diving depth 100 m
Diving time 45 sec surfaced to periscope depth
20 sec decks awash to periscope depth
Complement 46
Torpedo tubes 4 x 21" bow, 2 x 21" stern
Armament 12 torpedoes
Guns 1 x 100 mm / 45 cal DP, 200 rounds
1 x 45 mm / 46 cal K-21 AA, 500 rounds
Notes - Riveted hull. Saddle-tank configuration.
- Pressure hull diameter is a maximum of 4.6 m with seven compartments.
- Construction of these three Series IX submarines was immediately followed
 by a large number of Series IX-bis.


Most data in the table below is courtesy of Kockums and Per Nordenberg.

As one can see this table is still incomplete, so please contact us if you have any additional information.

IvS submarines for Sweden

Boat Delfinen Nordkaparen Springaren
Translation Dolphin Northern Right Whale Common Dolphin
Yard # 176 177 181
Class Normally referred to as Delfinen class
Type ?
Ordered ? ? ?
Launched 1934-35
Laid down 1933 1933 1933
Launched 20 Dec 1934 9 Feb 1935 27 Apr 1935
Commissioned 22 Apr 1936 16 Oct 1936 3 Aug 1937
Decommissioned 24 Feb 1953 24 Feb 1953 24 Feb 1953
Sold for scrap 1953 1953 1953
Design Dutch IvS
Shipyard Kockums Mekaniska Verkstad in Malmö
Le x Be x Dr According to the Swedish Navy: 63.1 m x 6.4 m
According to other sources: 61 m x 6.3 m x 3.4 m 
Displacement 540 / 720
Propulsion Diesel-electric
Engines ?
Main motor ?
Shafts 2
Fuel ?
Batteries ?
Speed surf/subm 15 kts / 10 or 9 kts
Range ?
Diving depth ?
Complement 34
Torpedo tubes 2 x 533 mm bow, 2 x 533 mm aft
Armament Torpedoes and 20 mines
Guns According to the Swedish Navy: 1 x 57 mm, 1 x 25 mm
According other sources: 1 x 57 mm deck gun, 1 x MG (probably 8 mm)
Notes - Double hull.
- According to H. Carlsson: I have got the understanding that Sweden bought what is
 called "Project drawings". From those drawings the design and construction drawings
 were maid. Several changes from the project drawings were made.
- Do you have more info on these Swedish subs? Then
   please email us at webmaster@dutchsubmarines.com


Most data in the table below is from the book Submarines of the Russian and Soviet Navies 1718-1990

As one can see this table is still incomplete, so please contact us if you have any additional information.

IvS submarines for Romania

Boat Marsuinul / Marsouinul Requinul / Rechinul
Translation ? ?
Yard # ? 929
Class ? ?
Type   Mine layer
Ordered ?  
Laid down 1938 1938
Launched 4 May 1941 22 May 1941
Completed 1942 1944
Commissioned ? 1944
Decommissioned ? ?
Fate ?Probably scrapped in the 1950's Probably scrapped in the 1950's
Design German / IvS
Improved version of the E 1 design.
German / IvS, project 298.
Related to the German type I A.
Shipyard Santieri Galati Shipbuilding, Galatzi? Santieri Galati Shipbuilding, Galatzi?
Le x Be x Dr ?58 m x 5.6 m x 3.6 m ?68 m x 5.9 m x 3.6 m
Displacement 620 / ? tons 645 / 870 tons
Propulsion ?
Engines 2 x M.A.N. diesels, 1840hp. 2 x M.A.N. diesels, 1840hp.
Main motor 2 x electric motor 2 x electric motor
Shafts 2 2
Batteries ? ?
Speed surf/subm 16 / 9 knots 17 / 9 knots
Range 8000 nm, 45 days 7000 nm, 45 days
Diving depth ? ?
Complement ?45 40
Torpedo tubes 4 x 21" bow, 2 x 21" stern 4 x 21" bow
Mine chutes - 10 mine chutes in the saddle tanks.
Armament 12 torpedoes ? torpedoes
40 mines?
Guns 1 x 102 mm / 45 cal.
1 x 37 mm AA
1 x 88 mm
1 x 20 mm AA
Notes - Most of this data is referring to her status in
 the Soviet Navy.
- Construction supervised by technicians of Deschimag.
- Delayed in entering service.
- Performed only one patrol before becoming the Soviet
 S 4 after being captured on 30 Aug 1944.
- Returned to the Romanian Navy in 1951.
- Probably scrapped in the 1950's.
- Most of this data is referring to her status in
  the Soviet Navy
- Became the Soviet S 3 after being captured
 on 30 Aug 1944.
- Returned to the Romanian Navy in 1951.
- Probably scrapped in the 1950's.



IVS related pages
Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw
Photos: Export subs for Finland
Photos: Export sub Vesikko for Finland
Photos: Export subs for Turkey
Photos: Export subs for Sweden
IVS related books
Stealth at Sea
Finnish Navy in WWII 








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